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Historical Perspective of Education in the Indian subcontinent

Colonial Era and Promotion of Urdu by Jamia Urdu Hind

(State’s Madrasa Tuloloom: A Linguistic Minority Educational Institution)

Why is Corruption for Promotion of Urdu Today Less of a Taboo than a Quarter Century Ago?
Urdu language is one of the official languages of India. Urdu words are spoken by 25% of total population of India. The communalism has definitely eroded the value of Urdu language and has been fixed as language of Muslims. Of course, it is the official language of Pakistan, our sworn enemy. We should not consider this language based on our enemies. Instead, we should consider this on the basis of values it brings to our society. Urdu is a neglected language, its polished words slowly fading away from publications, films, even schools. However, its decline can be stopped. Urdu’s fate was sealed with its ouster from the secular curriculum. After 1947, Urdu was hit by a communalist mindset thinking it was only the language of Muslims. This is entirely wrong – languages have no religion. But slowly, Urdu was erased from our social and cultural spheres. The last nail in its coffin was the Official Languages Act, 1951, or the Education Order of 1953, ensuring that Urdu education was terminated in its traditional heartland of Uttar Pradesh. Today, Urdu-medium schools are tottering everywhere. A revival of Urdu is vital for the rejuvenation of the Indian national and social ethos. Urdu’s renewal will show the survival of our secular credentials. Urdu cannot survive as a language of cultural expression in poetry or celebrations unless it forms part of our educational paraphernalia. As per the trilingual formula, Urdu must be introduced centrally in all government and private schools as an option for students.
Na tera he na mera he, Hindustan sabka he = Nahi samjhi gayi yeh baat to nuksaan sabka he.
Jo isme milgayi nadiyaan wo dikhlayi nahi deti = Mahasaagar banana me magar ehsan sabka he.
Hazaroun rung khushbu nasal k phal-phool paudhe hen = Magar gulshan ki izzat aabru eemaan sabka he.
If big business houses consider Urdu a language of millions and advertise in it, it can be brought into the mainstream. Besides, as is happening in other languages, Urdu must also produce great writers today, so they can be translated world over – just like Ghalib, Iqbal and Faiz.
Dar Dar Bhatak Rahi Hai Magar Dar Nahin Mila
Urdu Ko Apney Des Mein Hi Ek Ghar Nahin Mila
The above couplet rightly depicts the plight of Urdu which was born and nurtured here and eventually became a symbol of country’s composite culture. The language which gave us the slogans Inquilab Zindabad and patriotic songs like Sare Jahan Se Achcha Hindustan Hamara and Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna Ab Hamare Dil Mein Hai during the freedom struggle, became alien in its own land after independence as it became the official language of Pakistan, our sworn enemy. Unfortunately, vested interests dubbed it as the language of Muslims only, conveniently forgetting the contributions of Brij Narain ‘Chakbast’, Daya Shankar ‘Naseem’, Prem Chand, Ratan Nath ‘Sarshar’, Raghupati Sahai ‘Firaq’ Gorakhpuri, Anand Narain ‘Mulla’, Krishna Bihari ‘Noor’, Gopi Chand Narang and hundreds of other Non-Muslim poets and writers. Even the National Anthem of Pakistan and Bangladesh were written by Jagannath Azad and Rabindra Nath Tagore respectively. Allama Iqbal called Lord Ram Imam-e-Hind in a moving Urdu poem, relating that India is proud of him. According to Muslim belief, Lord Ram not only exists but also is part of the community’s religious legacy as 124,000 messengers were sent to the earth. Rahi Masoom Raza Rahi, PhD in Urdu from Aligarh Muslim University wrote the screenplay and dialogue of the TV series Mahabharat (the most watched TV series in India) was also the teacher of a patron of JUH. Firoz Khan played as Arjuna in Mahabharat and directed the movie Sampurn Ramayan. AR Antuley as Chief Minister was the first Indian to retrieve Bhawani Sword of Shivaji from Queen Victoria. Strong Advocates of Hindu-Muslim Unity & Historical Patriots of United States of Bharat are Urdu, Abdul Hamid (Army), Mohd Rafi, Abdul Kalam (Missile Man of India), Akbar the Great,Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan (Frontier Gandhi), Shakeel Badayuni, Sahir Ludhianvi, Ali Brothers, Majrooh Sultanpuri, Ali Vardi Khan, Anu MalikLucky AliTalat Mahmood, Aamir Khan, Dilip Kumar, Shamshad Begum, Kaifi Azmi, Nawab Pataudi, Zakir Hussian, Mukhtar Abbas NaqviSyed Shahnawaz Hussain, Najma Hepatullah, Resul PookuttyA. R. Rahman, Naushad AliSalim-Sulaiman, Javed Akhtar, Nadeem Akhtar, Abrar Alvi, CM Habibullah, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Salim Ali, GhalibBahadur Shah Zafar, Kazi Nazrul Islam, Titu Mir, Abul Kalam AzadRafi Ahmed Kidwai, Mohd Ashfaq Ullah Khan, Ali Ahmad Siddiqui, Syed Mujtaba Hussain, Vakkom Abdul Khadir, Hazrat Mahal, Asghari Begum, Bi Amma, Tippu Sultan, Shahjahan, MF Husain, Major Shahnawaz ( the most trusted personnel of Netaji SC Bose), Ustad Bismillah Khan, Ustad Amjad Ali and many more. 
Mazaa-jun Phool Jaisa, Hoslaa Guldaan Jaisa He = Ye Urdu He Ke Jiska Dil Bhi Hindustaan Jaisa He
Urdu, certainly does not belong to one community. Political hawks have slotted Urdu as ‘a Muslim language’. That’s a fallacy. Urdu is a language of cultural synthesis. Historically, Urdu newspapers made a solid contribution to the national cause during the freedom struggle. Urdu was very much India’s lingua franca, a language of our amalgamated cultural heritage belonging to all Indians, irrespective of caste, creed or religion. Umpteen Urdu publishing houses were manned by non-Muslims. So, Urdu has to be nurtured for the development of language as well as our country.
 Wo firaq aur wo wisaal kahaan = Wo shab o roz o maah o saal kahaan
JUH is an standalone institution registered with Planning Commission which is governed by the Prime Minister of India. It works for education for all under the guidelines of NPE 1986, MHRD, Govt. of India and programme of action 1992, Govt. of India. All Educational Boards / Universities are autonomous bodies. It is left to the discretion of University either to allow or refuse admission to a student from another University. In this way, every State Government is at liberty whether to provide service to a person who has passed out from a particular University or Educational Board or not. Under Human Right Protection Act 1993, autonomous bodies have been given Special Consideration (for further details refer AIR 1993 SC 2178). The Legality, Validity and Utility of our education programmes are in strict conformity with the constitution of India and law of the land under Article 14-16, 19(1), 21, 29, 30, 45, 46, 120, 210, 343-351 of the Indian Constitution 1950, the work done by JUH is a valid one for appreciation.
The concept of Distance Education originated from Berlin (Germany) in 1856. Afterwards, Russia granted recognition to distance education in the world. In this manner, the idea of Open University was conceived by the British Prime Minister Mr. Harold Wilson in the year 1863 to provide an opportunity to persons who were otherwise denied opportunities to further their education and make their life successful. In 1969 under the Royal Charter, an Open University was established and the success of which was more far reaching than the traditional Universities. Under the National Education Policy 1986, the Government of India laid particular stress on Open Universities and Distance Education. JUH is getting necessary direction and full co-operation from Educationists, Professors, Philanthropists, Social Workers, Corporate Managers of MNCs of our country. It is their unanimous opinion that JUH has given practical shape to the concept of British Prime Minister Harold Wilson by providing Open and Distance Education to the under privileged sections of students and encouraging students for learning in depth.
 Autonomous Courses of Gurukul System of Education and JUH (State’s Madrasatul Oloom) is cornerstone in the service of motherland. In ancient times, India had the Gurukul system of education in which anyone who wished to study went to a teacher’s (Guru) house and requested to be taught. If accepted as a student by the guru, he would then stay at the guru’s place and help in all activities at home. This not only created a strong tie between the teacher and the student, but also taught the student everything about running a house. The guru taught everything the child wanted to learn, from Sanskrit to the Holy Scriptures and from Mathematics to Metaphysics. The student stayed as long as he wished or until the guru felt that he had taught everything he could teach. All learning was closely linked to nature and to life, and not confined to memorizing some information.
The modern school system was brought to India, including the English language, originally by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay in the 1830s. The curriculum was confined to “modern” subjects such as science and mathematics, and subjects like metaphysics and philosophy were considered unnecessary. Teaching was confined to classrooms and the link with nature was broken, as also the close relationship between the teacher and the student. This pattern of education has been followed religiously for nearly 175 years. The Government of India brought changes in National Education Policy in 1986 and again brought in dramatic changes with National Education Framework 2005.
 UGC document on the XI plan profile of higher education in India states that “The only safe and better way to improve the quality of undergraduate education is in the delinking of most of the colleges from the affiliating structure. Colleges with academic and operative freedom are doing better and have more credibility. The financial support to such colleges boosts the concept of Autonomy.”
During the time of the East India Company, Thomas Babington Macaulay had made schooling a priority for the Raj in his famous minute of February 1835 and succeeded in implementing ideas previously put forward by Lord William Bentinck (the governor general between 1828 and 1835). Bentinck favoured the replacement of Persian by English as the official language, the use of English as the medium of instruction, and the training of English-speaking Indians as teachers. He was inspired by utilitarian ideas and called for “useful learning.” However, Bentinck’s proposals were rejected by London officials.Under Macaulay, thousands of elementary and secondary schools were opened though they usually had an all-male student body. Universities in Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras were established in 1857, just before the Rebellion. By 1890, some 60,000 Indians had matriculated, chiefly in the liberal arts or law. About a third entered public administration, and another third became lawyers. The result was a very well educated professional state bureaucracy. By 1887 of 21,000 mid-level civil service appointments, 45% were held by Hindus, 7% by Muslims, 19% by Eurasians (European father and Indian mother), and 29% by Europeans. Of the 1000 top -level positions, almost all were held by Britons, typically with an Oxbridge degree.The government, often working with local philanthropists, opened 186 universities and colleges of higher education by 1911; they enrolled 36,000 students (over 90% men). By 1939, the number of institutions had doubled and enrolment reached 145,000. The curriculum followed classical British standards of the sort set by Oxford and Cambridge and stressed English literature and European history. Nevertheless, by the 1920s, the student bodies had become hotbeds of Indian nationalism. Around British Raj, a few Paisa was collected weekly by teachers as salary know as Sanichra in school (when collected on Saturday) and Jumrati (when collected on Thursday). Thus, it was the minor Salalry upto 1972 after that, the salary was increased. Privatization and without payment (Vitrahit) were introduced around 1984 thereafter, the concept of contract and education for all were introduced. Absolutely, the sustainable income of State’s Madrasatul Oloom (Jamia Urdu Hind) was Jumrati upto 1979. UI Kalsekar, a close associate of Gandhiji was the patron of State’s Madrasatul Oloom looking after the salary of teachers who introduced dress code in India when working with Gandhiji in Sabarmati Ashram.
In 1935, after the Round Table Conferences, the British Parliament approved the Government of India Act 1935, which authorized the establishment of independent legislative assemblies in all provinces of British India, the creation of a central government incorporating both the British provinces and the princely states, and the protection of Muslim minorities. Nawab Chhatari (PM of Nizam Hydrabad) was the sitting member in the conference who and his family always supported State’s Madrasatul Oloom. The future Constitution of independent India would owe a great deal to the text of this act. The act also provided for a bicameral national parliament and an executive branch under the purview of the British government. Although the national federation was never realized, nationwide elections for provincial assemblies were held in 1937. Despite initial hesitation, the Congress took part in the elections and won victories in seven of the eleven provinces of British India, and Congress governments, with wide powers, were formed in these provinces. In Great Britain, these victories were to later turn the tide for the idea of Indian independence.General public was not bothered about British Raj owing to transparency of administration for common Indian but creamy layer of India was disturbed by British.
 To educate the children of non-educated persons are tougher than that of educated persons hence Muslims are least educated minority community in the country as per Decoded Minority Report since British Imperialism. There is declining Muslim IAS Officers from 1950 (13 %) to 2000 (2.92 %) among its 14% population in India. IAS officer is the pillar of governance. Hence, more than 50000 Madrasa and 14% literacy to India are contributed by Muslims without grants from government. Madarsa has produced architecture of Taj Mahal, Lal Qila, Qutub Minar along with Abusena in medicine and Khaiyam in mathematics. If Muslims are not covered in the mainstream of nation building exercise, then very soon, minority community of Unrecognized Urdu Courses in India will be like Dinosaurs with Lal Qila, Qutub Minar, Jama Masjid, Taj Mahal as remnant for scientific research. In the past, Urdu has gathered a good deal of political dust, which it must shed in the interest of its health & growth. The basic problems of a language are educational, literary or administrative and if we confine ourselves to these spheres, we will discover that solutions become easier to find. India will never be a developed nation until power practice of biased mind will be ceased and surrendered completely and voluntarily because Hitler said after a long debate: Justice is the interest of the stronger.
The Linguistic Recognition by MHRD, Govt of India
As of today, the Indian constitution recognizes 22 major languages of India in what is known as “the 8th Schedule” of the Constitution. They also happen to be the major literary languages in India, with a considerable volume of writing in them. They include, besides Sanskrit, the following 21 modern Indian languages: Assamese, Bangla, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kashmiri, Kannada, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Santali, Sindhi, and Urdu.

Benefits of State’s Madrasatul Oloom(Jamia Urdu Hind)

*  The courses done through Open System save the time of those students who have gap in years of study.
*  They do not have to spend long time in classrooms and they can concentrate on the other works simultaneously.
*  The people who are working part-time can easily enroll themselves and complete the courses.
*  Since some of them are already experienced, the knowledge obtained through the courses will help them to get better jobs or promotions.
*  Non-matriculating degree students will have the option of enrolling in a series of courses leading to a Certificate in one of four areas. This option will appeal especially to educators seeking to qualify for “highly qualified” status: Takhassus.
 
This institution was constituted decades back as State’s Madrasa Tuloloom not only for educational advancement, socio-cultural uplift and mitigation of backwardness of Minority of India but as a part of long term strategy to awaken the youth against the British rule, to infuse nationalism, patriotism and unity among the people. State’s Madrasa Tuloloom wished to synthesize oriental and occidental learning and therefore planned to establish an academy where qualified persons from both streams may have an environment conducive to scholarly pursuits resulting in Darulmusannefin (Writer’s Building) and Azad Library. These institutions were part of a movement parallel to the national movement headed by the UI Kalsekar of Shabrmati Ashram who had very close association with several people responsible for the management of these institutions. Binoba Bhawe when visited the locality during Bhumidaan Movement, also stole some of his precious time to visit these institutions of then Phus Ki Jhopri (now Writer’s Building), interacted with the staff, received 6 Kattha Land by Md Hanif Uddin and expressed his good wishes and blessings. Once Qurban Ali (revenue collector of Dowlatpore Agricultural Concern) opposed CG Atkin to protect the interest of the locality consequently exiled for life to Kalapani punishment by C.G.Atkin. Hailing from a family of freedom fighters, Qurban Ali, Karam Ilahi, Md Hanif Uddin, Choudhary of Pargana and UI Kalsekar became rectors of this educational movement. CM Dr J. Mishra, Raj Sabha Member Maulana Asad Madani, Secretary(AIMPLB) Maulan Wali Rahmani became integral part of this educational movement. All were Agriculture Scholars. Land donor to JUH and Film Writer of Bollywood Javed Akhtar were educated in the same school i.e. Minto Circle.
To sum up, these institutions were a movement in itself which aimed at inspiring nationalism, patriotism, unity, brotherhood, awareness and loyalty towards the country against the foreign rule and advancement of knowledge both scientific and traditional. This Madrasa of Urdu Language having rich heritage of language and religion, Jamia Urdu Hind (A Linguistic Minority Educational Institution) is on its relentless journey since decades surmounting hurdles of indigenous and exotic nature on its way and has passed through the tests of accreditation towards reaching the status of excellence. JUH is aware that the process of achieving excellence is continuous and therefore, all efforts are in progress to keep up the momentum. The National and International level connectivity and visibility of the institution is a pointer that JUH is moving from the status of Madrasa with Potential for Excellence to the status of institution with Potential for Excellence & National Importance because of its evening classes, informal education, non-formal education and formal education.

Those who forget their history, cannot make history!

 

 CHARWAHA SCHOOLS IN BIHAR
FORMAL, INFORMAL & NON-FORMAL EDUCATION (NFE)

Non-Formal Education is a Weapon Against Child Labor and Keeps Working Children in School.Non-Formal Education is the answer to rural illiteracy and ignorance. Madrasa Education is the largest non formal education network all over India.

The scheme of Charwaha Schools in Bihar was launched in December, 1991 for providing services under one roof for an integrated development of the rural poor. The programme is implemented by the Education Department in collaboration with the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, Welfare and Forestry. While the Department of Agriculture has to provide the unutilised seed farm, the Forestry Department has to plant trees, the Fisheries Department has to develop pisiculture and the Welfare Department has to provide Mid-Day Meals to children.
Main Findings
1. No separate funds were made available and the concerned line departments incurred the expenditure on the Scheme from their own budgetary allocations. Besides infrastructural facilities, the activities undertaken in these Charwaha Schools included: formal and non-formal education, women’s education, women’s development programmes, facilities for learning need based trades, setting up of cooperative centres, advance farming, veterinary care and bio-gas plant.
2. In the Charwaha Schools visited, participation in formal education was highest, although facilities for the same were only in two of the five schools. This was followed by participation in non-formal education and vocational training.
3. For formal and non-formal education teachers were appointed either on deputation or part-time basis. Wherever training in any trade was being imparted, instructors were made available by the concerned line department.
4. Of the total beneficiaries canvassed, 82.5 percent were of school-going age, 37.5 per cent were female, 62.5 percent belonged to Backward Classes and 27.5 percent were Scheduled Castes.
5. Majority of the beneficiaries receiving both formal and non-formal education, were satisfied with the facilities provided. However, in case of vocational training, majority of the beneficiaries were not satisfied with the facilities provided.
6. Non-availability of mid-day meals, stipend, and reading/writing material were the major problems reported by the beneficiaries under formal and non-formal education. Majority of those attending vocational training reported inadequate supply of raw material.
In fact , the scope of Charwaha Schools , as outlined, encompasses a much broader meaning of the word `School’, wherein services for all round development of the target group have been envisaged, keeping in view their socio-economic and cultural milieu.
 History of NFE in India & MDRD, Govt of India
The history of NFE in India shows that Non-Formal Education was used in the early Vedic period without using the name.
Education comprises three categories, i.e. incidental or informal (disorganized), non-formal (disorganized & organized) and formal system (organized) of education.
Recommendation for NFE(Non Formal Education) in various Education Commissions and National Policies
(a) Kothdri Commission (1964-66)
(b)National Policy on Education (1968)
(c) National Policy on Education (1979)
(d)New National Policy on Education (1986)
 Educational Empowerment on Sachar Committee Report by MDRD, Govt of India
10. Relative deprivation in education of Muslims vis-à-vis other SRCs calls for a significant shift in the policy of the State, along with the creation of effective partnership with private and voluntary sectors.
All the State Governments/Union Territory Administrations have been advised by the Ministry of HRD for using existing school buildings and community buildings as the study centres for school children. Reminders have been periodically issued to the Chief Secretaries of all states/ UTs in this regard.
Under the Scheme for Providing Quality Education in Madarsa (SPQEM), the objective is to encourage traditional institutions like Madarasas and Maktabs by giving financial assistance to introduce science, mathematics, social studies, Hindi and English in their curriculum so that academic proficiency for classes 1-XII is attainable for children studying in these institutions.
Similarly, the scheme for Infrastructure Development of Minority Institutions (IDMI) would facilitate education of minorities by augmenting and strengthening school infrastructure in Minority Institutions (elementary/ secondary/senior secondary schools) in order to expand facilities for formal education to children of minority communities. The scheme will inter alia encourage educational facilities for girls, children with special needs and those who are most deprived educationally amongst minorities.
Recognition of the degree from Madarasas for eligibility in competitive examination e.g. Civil Services, Banks, Defense services etc. Equivalence to Madarasas certification/degrees for admission to higher education institutions be given. The certificates / qualifications of the Madrasa Boards which have been granted equivalence by the State Education Board to that of their Secondary and Senior Secondary qualification have been equated with corresponding certificates of the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Council of Board of School Education in India (COBSE) and other school examination boards, for the purpose of employment and entry to higher levels education. DOPT has issued notification.
NFE & MHRD, Govt of India
Keeping in view the demand for promotion of Urdu, the Government of India appointed a Committee for Promotion of Urdu in the year 1972 under the Chairmanship of Shri I.K.Gujral, the then Minister for Works land Housing called Gujral Committee for Promotion of Urdu. The Committee submitted its report to the Government in the year 1975. In pursuance of the recommendations of the Gujral Committee, the Govt decided to launch a Centrally sponsored Scheme of appointment of Urdu Teachers and grant of honorarium for teaching Urdu in States/UTs with immediate effect. Under the Scheme, the State/UT Governments will be provided 100% financial assistance for salaries of Urdu teachers and Honorarium to the existing Urdu teachers for teaching Urdu in Schools.
In pursuance of the National Policy on Education, 1968 which was reiterated in subsequent policies in 1986 and 1992 with regard to the teaching of languages in schools in the country, the Government of India has been implementing the Three Language Formula at the post Primary and Secondary stages of school education. As per the formula, the Third Language in Hindi Speaking States and Union Territories should be a Modern Indian Language, preferably a South Indian Language (SIL: Kanada, Malyalam, Tamil and Telugu). In order to ensure effective implementation of this aspect of the formula in letter and spirit, the Government of India has decided to initiate a Centrally sponsored scheme from 1993-94 during the 8th Plan period, under which 100% financial assistance would be provided for the appointment of MIL teachers (other than Hindi), preferably MIL teachers, to the Hindi speaking States and Union Territories, on the analogy of the Centrally sponsored scheme of Appointment of Hindi Teachers in the non-Hindi speaking region.
MDRD, GOVT OF INDIA:MINORITIES & NPE
4.8 Some minority groups are educationally deprived or ward. Greater attention will be paid to the education of these groups in the interests of equality and social justice. This will naturally include the Constitutional guarantees given to them to establish and administer their own educational institutions and protection to their languages and culture. Simultaneously, objectivity will be reflected in the preparation of textbooks and in all school activities, and all possible measures will be taken to promote an integration based on appreciation of common national goals and ideals, in conformity with the core curriculum.
 MDRD, GOVT OF INDIA:NON-FORMAL EDUCATION & NPE
5.8 The Non-formal Education Programme, meant for school dropouts, for children from habitations without schools, working children and girls who cannot attend whole-day schools, will be strengthened and enlarged.
5.9 Modern technological aids will be used to improve the learning environment of NFE Centres. Talented and dedicated young men and women from the local community will be chosen to serve as instructors, and particular attention paid to their training. All necessary measures will be taken to ensure that the quality of non-formal education is comparable with the formal education. Steps will be taken to facilitate lateral entry into the formal system of children passing out of the non-formal system.
5.10 Effective steps will be taken to provide a framework for the curriculum on the lines of the national core curriculum, but based on the needs of the learners and related to the local environment. Learning material of high quality will be developed and provided free of charge to all pupils. NFE programmes will provide participatory learning environment, and activities such as games and sports, cultural programmes, excursions, etc.
5.11 The Government will take over-all responsibility for this vital sector. Voluntary agencies and Panchayati Raj institutions will take much of the responsibility of running NFE programmes. The provision of funds to these agencies will be adequate and timely.
 A RESOLVE & NPE
5.12 The New Education policy will give the highest priority to solving the problem of children dropping out of school and will adopt an array of meticulously formulated strategies based on micro-planning, and applied at the grass roots level all over the country, to ensure children’s retention at school. This effort will be fully coordinated with the network of non-formal education. It shall be ensured that free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality is provided to all children upto 14 years of age before we enter the twenty-first century. A national mission will be launched for the achievement of this goal.
 MDRD, GOVT OF INDIA: VOCATIONALISATION & NPE
5.16 The introduction of systematic, well planned and rigorously implemented programmes of vocational education is crucial in the proposed educational reorganisation. These elements are meant to develop a healthy attitude amongst students towards work and life, to enhance individual employability, to reduce the mis-match between the demand and supply of skilled manpower, and to provide an alternative for those intending to pursue higher education without particular interest or purpose. Efforts will be made to provide children at the higher secondary level with generic vocational courses which cut across several occupational fields and which are not occupation specific.
5.17 Vocational Education will also be a distinct stream, intended to prepare students for identified occupations spanning several areas of activity. These courses will ordinarily be provided after the secondary stage, but keeping the scheme flexible, they may also be made available after class VIII.
5.18 Health planning and health service management should optimally interlock with the education and training of appropriate categories of health manpower through health-related vocational courses. Health education at the primary and middle levels will ensure the commitment of the individual to family and community health, and lead to health-related vocational courses at the +2 stage of higher secondary education. Efforts will be made to devise similar vocational courses based on Agriculture, Marketing, Social Services, etc. An emphasis in vocational education will also be on development of attitudes, knowledge, and skills for entrepreneurship and self-employment.
5.19 The establishment of vocational courses or institutions will be the responsibility of the Government as well as employers in the public and private sectors; the Government will, however, take special steps to cater to the needs of women, rural and tribal students and the deprived sections of society. Appropriate programmes will also be started for the handicapped.
5.20 Graduates of vocational courses will be given opportunities, under predetermined conditions, for professional growth, career improvement and lateral entry into courses of general, technical and professional education through appropriate bridge courses.
5.21 Non-formal, flexible and need-based vocational programmes will also be made available to neo-literate, youth who have completed primary education, school drop-outs, persons engaged in work and unemployed or partially employed persons. Special attention in this regard will be given to women.
5.22 Tertiary level courses will be organized for the young who graduate from the higher secondary courses of the academic stream and may also require vocational courses.
5.23 It is proposed that vocational courses cover 10 per cent of higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 per cent by 2000. Steps will be taken to see that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become self-employed. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken. Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the secondary level.
 MHRD, GOVT OF INDIA: OPEN UNIVERSITY AND DISTANCE LEARNING & NPE
5.35 The open learning system has been initiated in order to augment opportunities for higher education, as an instrument of democratizing education and to make it a lifelong process. The flexibility and innovativeness of the open learning system are particularly suited to the diverse requirements of the citizens of our country, including those who had joined the vocational stream.
5.36 The Indira Gandhi National Open University, established in 1985 in fulfillment of these objectives, will be strengthened. It would also provide support to establishment of open universities in the States.
5.37 The National Open School will be strengthened and open learning facilities extended in a phased manner at the secondary level in all parts of the country.
 MDRD, GOVT OF INDIA: RURAL UNIVERSITY & NPE
5.42 The new pattern of the Rural University will be consolidated and developed on the lines of Mahatma Gandhis revolutionary ideas on education so as to take up the challenges of micro-planning at grassroots levels for the transformation of rural areas. Institutions and programmes of Gandhian basic education will be supported.
 MDRD, GOVT OF INDIA: INNOVATION, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT & NPE
6.13 Research as a means of renovation and renewal of educational processes will be undertaken by all higher technical institutions. It will primarily aim at producing quality manpower capable of taking up R&D functions. Research for development will focus on improving present technologies, developing new indigenous ones and enhancing production and productivity. A suitable system for watching and forecasting technology will be set up.
6.14 The scope for cooperation, collaboration and networking relationships between institutions at various levels and with the user systems will be utilized. Proper maintenance and an attitude of innovation and improvement will be promoted systematically
NON-FORMAL EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION FOR ALL IN INDIA
Non- Formal Education in the Indian context has developed a restricted meaning of an alternative delivery system of education for children who are not able to participate in the formal elementary school. Non-Formal Education has therefore, been limited to providing a second chance to those children who are out-of- school. Broadly speaking, such children are often described as drop-outs. However, a very large number of such children are, in fact, pull-outs from school because of economic and cultural compulsions. Many children may be called stay-outs because the reach of the primary school system in India is not universal. Besides pull-outs and stay-outs, a very large number of children are what may be termed as push-outs. These children do not find the primary school attractive or meaningful. In order to fulfill the constitutional goal of providing free and compulsory education to all children upto the age of 14, we have to provide education which is both relevant and interesting. For a variety of reasons, the formal school system has tended to leave out millions of rural and urban poor children who are not able to attend a full time day-school. Consequently, there is a need for developing a viable alternative system of education which would provide Basic Education for All children in the country. Non-Formal Education has evolved as one such alternative.
Non-Formal Education as an alternative to formal Elementary Education was experimented with as early as 1976 at which time nine educationally backward states in the country were persuaded to initiate experimental NFE centres. In 1988, following the introduction of the National Policy on Education (1986), a full- fledged scheme of Non-Formal Education supported by the Central Government was introduced primarily in ten educationally backward states, as well as all over the country in urban slums, remote areas, desert and hilly regions. The scheme of Non-Formal Education envisaged wide spread participation by State Governments as well as Voluntary Agencies engaged in educational programmes, specially in rural and tribal areas.
  NON-FORMAL EDUCATION IN THE CHANGING CONTEXT OF PRIMARY EDUCATION IN INDIA
Since 1986, there has been a growing National concern for achieving Basic Education for All in the shortest possible time. Several programmes of support to primary and elementary education in the country have been initiated in order to achieve this goal. The experience gathered since 1976 and particularly since 1988 in the area of Non-Formal Education clearly demonstrates that Universal Elementary Education can only be achieved if Non-Formal Education is made available as a viable alternative to formal school education. Despite Limited success, Non-Formal Education has become acceptable to a large section of the rural poor parents who are keen and willing to send their children to school but find the formal full-day school not suitable in their economic condition. The feasibility of Non-Formal Education has become enhanced in the last eight years. Participation in the Non- Formal Education programme by nearly 650 voluntary Agencies has added to its credibility and acceptability.
DEPARTMENT OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION IN THE NCERT
In 1988 when the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Non Formal Education was formulated by the MHRD, a full-fledged Department of Non- Formal Education was established in the NCERT Prior to 1988, Non- Formal Education functioned as part of other departments. With the establishment of a Department, Non-Formal Education became recognized as an alternative to elementary education. From 1988-1995, the department was also given the responsibility of overseeing Education to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes since Non-Formal Education emphasized reaching these communities where large number of children were out-of-school. In 1995, the department was re-organized and renamed Department of Education in Non-Formal and Alternative Schooling. This reorganization has vindicated the significance of Non-Formal Education as an essential alternative to Formal Elementary Education. The department is now poised to play a significant role in the achievement of Universal Elementary Education which has been a goal for the country.
Non-Formal Educational Centers & Asha for education, Bihar
NFE centers are typically created for children who are unable to attend an entire day of school. Often these centers serve as a stepping stone to more formal education. NFEs are, as their name implies allow non-formal enrolment – children can join irrespective of their age. Some NFEs tend to be non-formal in content – they can follow varying curriculums. There are bridge schools that offer several years of curriculum in a condensed manner to help the children join a formal education system. Other schools try to get the children comfortable with a subset of the curriculum such as language and basic maths and sciences hoping to encourage the children to learn further. Asha works with NFE centers that have been started by members of the community themselves i.e started by community groups. NFEs need various forms of support from infrastructural support, running expenses, educational resources and teachers training programs.
 SCERT-Kerala
NFE is envisaged for organising educational programmes for marginalized and out-of-school populations to draw them into mainstream education. Special Education,Population Education & National Talent Search Examination come under this department.
1.SPECIAL EDUCATION / INTEGRATED EDUCATION FOR THE DISABLED(IED)
lED is a centrally sponsored programme implemented in Kerala since 1975. It aims to provide equity in opportunity to the deprived groups, thus helping them to get into the mainstream of the society.
2.POPULATION EDUCATION (POPED)
The activities of POPED are two-fold: population education progrommes supported by the Govt. of Kerala and those funded by UNFPA. It conducts several programs for teachers, students, opinion makers, administrators of school education about adolescent education, help education, AIDS education, Life-skill education etc.
3 NATIONAL TALENT SEARCH EXAMINATION (NTSE)
SCERT plays a major role in preparing students for the NTSE (conducted by NCERT by administering the screening test at state level).
N C E R T, ANNUAL REPORT 2010-11
The NCERT also assisted in capacity building of SCERTs, DIETs, SIETs, etc and popularisation and improvement of science education, population education, environmental education, non-formal education, education of disadvantaged and marginalised groups, etc……… Non-Formal Education Programmes for children of 6-14 years age group…….
All India Photography Contest for Children was open to all students/candidates of ages 12-18 years from formal, non-formal, private and government schools from all states and Union Territories of the country.
NCERT promote excellence at all levels of various types of vocational education programme, both formal and non-formal throughout the country.
NCERT offer consultancy to state governments and other institutions in the areas of work experience and vocational education, both formal and non-formal. It functions as an overall national resource institution in the area of work experience & vocational education programme, both formal & non-formal; and establish equivalence of certificates & accredit vocational institutions keeping the quality parameters in view.
Minority & NCERT
Considering the need for paying special attention to the North-Eastern Region of the country, various programmes were organised at different locations in North- Eastern Region. Some of these programmes were training on environmental studies and other content specific curricular areas, teaching of minority languages and National Seminars on Environmental Education and Right to Education Act, 2009. A training programme for teachers on Teaching Minority Languages of Nagaland and Tripura was conducted at NERIE, Shillong from 20 to 24 September.
Development of Action Plan for Education of Linguistic Minorities for Guidelines for Enhancing Quality of School Education in UTs/States with High Tribal Population
The project resulted from the recommendations of the National Focus Group on problems of education of Scheduled Tribes children because of their mother-tongue being different from the medium of instruction in the schools. In this regard, meetings were held at Port Blair from 31 January to 2 February 2011and Bengaluru on 25-26 March 2011. The meetings were organised in collaboration with the SIE, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and DSERT, Karnataka. A two-day action plan for the state of Karnataka was held at Bengaluru in which experts from DIETs, SCERT, NCERT and other institutions participated. Discussions were held with the educational functionaries regarding Scheduled Tribes and linguistic minority concerns as reflected in the NCF-2005, in the position paper of NFG and the project report on Development of Educational Strategies for Linguistic Minorities. The lacunae in the implementation of the linguistic minority related concerns in the school education system were reviewed. Action plans for enhancing the implementation of the Scheduled Tribes and minority related concerns at the level of institutional framework, school curriculum, pedagogy, teacher development, etc. were developed for the respective UT/State in consultation with the district and state level functionaries.
Orientation of Managers, Principals & Teachers of Minority-run- Institutions on Quality Related Issues
The Working Group Report on education for disadvantaged sections for the formulation of Tenth Five-Year Plan (2001) had focused upon the importance of role of minority educational institutions in promotion of education among the educationally backward minorities. It has been further suggested that the special efforts need to be made for professional development of managers, principals and teachers of minority educational institutions for ensuring quality education. Keeping this in view, two training programmes were organised for managers, principals and teachers of minority-run-institutions on quality related issues for North-Eastern States. The programmes focused on identification of issues regarding imparting quality education in these institutions with special reference to education as a right of the child, to sensitise the managers, principals and teachers about their important role in achieving the goal of imparting quality education in these institutions and to train them in strategies to sensitise the parents and community members regarding education of educationally backward minority communities. A planning group meeting of state representatives of Nagaland and Manipur and core group from NCERT was organised and followed by two separate programmes one for managers and principals and another for teachers. Both the programmes were organised at SCERT, Kohima from 14 to 16 March 2011 which were attended by 53 participants from minority-run-institutions.
Meetings for Minority Cell and Activities of Minority Cell
As per recommendations of the National Monitoring Committee for Minorities Education, NCERT established a Minority Cell in the Council with members from minority communities and some persons working in the area of minority education from various constituent units of the Council. The Minority Cell is expected to speed up the process of planning and implementation of specific programmes for children belonging to different minority groups. Two meetings of the Cell were held with an objective to review the progress of various programmes taken up by NCERT constituents and plan further activities. The first meeting of the Minority Cell of NCERT was held to discuss the progress as well as the future activities to be taken up by the constituents of the Council on 22 September 2011 at RIE, Ajmer. Besides, three training programmes were organised by the representatives of different constituents. Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal organised a training programme on Implementation of Right to Education in Madarsas of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh from 10 to 11 March 2011. Forty two participants attended the programme. Regional Institute of Education, Bhubaneswar organised a training programme on Action Research for the States of Orissa and West Bengal from 21 to 25 February 2011. PSSCIVE, Bhopal organised a training programme on Vocational Education from 17 to 19 February 2011. Another meeting of the Minority Cell was held at NIE, New Delhi on 18 March 2011. All the programmes were focused on development of expertise in minority-run-institutions.
Training Programme in Vocational Guidance for the Vocational Teachers from Minority Groups
The major objective of the programme was to develop competencies in teachers rendering guidance services at the school level and to develop action plan for implementation of school guidance programme. The five-day training programme was organised from 11 to 15 January 2011 at PSSCIVE, Bhopal. The programme was attended by 83 participants belonging to minority groups from the states of Goa, Kerala, Punjab and Orissa. In the academic sessions resource persons discussed the topics related to vocational education and training, the need and importance of guidance and counselling, career information service, placement service, self- employment opportunities for vocational pass-outs, etc. The participants were given individual/ group assignments, such as preparation of career talks, charts, posters and school-wise action plan. Each participant presented career talk.
Minority-run-Institutions Teachers’ Training Programme on VET
A three-day training programme was organised from 17 to 19 February 2011 at PSSCIVE, Bhopal. The objectives of the programme were to acquaint participants with the importance of VET for students of Minority institutions. Each participant developed an action plan for their institutions to run VET programme. Report of the programme will be sent to Minority Cell, NCERT for the feedback and suggestions for organising programmes in future.
 

“WHAT IS URDU”
Speech Delivered On 8.2.2011 By
Hon’ble Mr. Justice Markandey Katju, Judge, Supreme Court Of India

Today our country, India, is facing great difficulties, such as poverty, unemployment, price rise, casteism, communalism, corruption, etc.  It is, therefore, important for the intellectuals to come forward now and show the correct path to the Indian people for overcoming their difficulties.
Intellectuals are the eyes of society, and without intellectuals a society is blind.  You are a section of the intellectuals of India, and therefore a heavy responsibility lies on you to show to the Indian people the path by which they can overcome their problems and advance forward.  However, in order to do so, you first have to clarify your own ideas and get a proper understanding about India and its culture.  How can you guide the people when you yourself are not clear about these matters?
 
INDIA IS BROADLY A COUNTRY OF IMMIGRANTS
I have mentioned in the recent judgment given by me in Kailas & Others  vs.  State of Maharashtra 2011(1) JT 19 that India is  broadly a country of immigrants, and this explains its tremendous diversity.  As I mentioned in that judgment, while North America is a country of new immigrants where people came mainly from Europe over the last four or five Centuries, India is a country of old immigrants where people have been coming in for ten thousand years or so.    Probably about 92% people living in India today are descendants of immigrants, who came mainly from the North-West, and to a lesser extent from the North-East. Since this is a point of great importance for the understanding of our country, it is necessary to go into it in some detail.         
                             
People migrate from uncomfortable areas to comfortable areas.  This is natural because everyone wants to live in comfort. Before the coming of modern industry there were agricultural societies everywhere, and India was a paradise for these because agriculture requires level land, fertile soil, plenty of water for irrigation etc. which was in abundance in India.  Why should anybody living in India migrate to, say, Afghanistan which has a harsh terrain, rocky and mountainous and covered with snow for several months in a year when one cannot grow any crop?  Hence, almost all immigrations and invasions came from outside into India (except those Indians who were sent out during British rule as indentured labour, and the recent migration of a few million Indians to the developed countries for job opportunities).  There is perhaps not a single instance of an invasion from India to outside India.
India was a veritable paradise for pastoral and agricultural societies because it has level & fertile land, hundreds of rivers, forests etc. and is rich in natural resources. Hence for thousands of years people kept pouring into India because they found a comfortable life here in a country which was gifted by nature.
As the great Urdu poet Firaq Gorakhpuri wrote:

“Sar Zamin-E-Hind Par Aqwaam-E-Alam Ke Firaq
 Kafile Guzarte Gaye Hindustan Banta Gaya

Which means –

“In the land of Hind, the Caravans of the peoples of
The world kept coming in and India kept getting formed”.

Who were the original inhabitants of India ? At one time it was believed that the Dravidians were the original inhabitants. However, this view has been considerably modified subsequently, and now the generally accepted belief is that the original inhabitants of India were the pre-Dravidian aborigines i.e. the ancestors of the present tribals or adivasis (Scheduled Tribes).
It is for this reason that there is such tremendous diversity in India.  This diversity is a significant feature of our country, and the only way to explain it is to accept that India is largely a country of immigrants.
There are a large number of religions, castes, languages, ethnic groups, cultures etc. in our country, which is due to the fact that India is broadly a country of immigrants.  Somebody is tall, somebody is short, some are dark, some are fair complexioned, with all kinds of shades in between, someone has Caucasian features, someone has Mongoloid features, someone has Negroid features, etc. There are differences in dress, food habits and various other matters.
We may compare India with China which is larger both in population and in land area than India.  China has a population of about 1.3 billion whereas our population is roughly 1.15 billion.  Also, China has more than twice our land area.   However, all Chinese have Mongoloid features; they have a common written script (Mandarin Chinese) and 95% of them belong to one ethnic group, called the Han Chinese.  Hence there is a broad (though not absolute) homogeneity in China.
On the other hand, as stated above, India has tremendous diversity and this is due to the large scale migrations and invasions into India over thousands of years. The various immigrants/invaders who came into India brought with them their different cultures, languages, religions, etc. which accounts for our tremendous diversity.
My friend Mr. Salman Khurshid, Hon’ble Union Minister, has written a play ‘Babur Ki Aulad’ which was produced recently.  Now I request him to write another play which should be called ‘Baahar ki aulad’, to depict India.

INDIAN CULTURE – CAN BROADLY BE CALLED THE SANSKRIT-URDU CULTURE

As I have already mentioned, India is broadly a country of immigrants, which explains its tremendous diversity.  The question now arises is whether these immigrants who came into India have all preserved their original different identities, or a common culture has emerged by their intermingling?  In my opinion, despite all our diversities, a common culture has emerged in India which may broadly be called the Sanskrit-Urdu culture, which is the common culture of India.  This culture revolves around great two languages which our country has produced, namely Sanskrit and Urdu.
I do not mean to denigrate or disparage the other languages of India.  Great literature has been written in several of our languages.  For example, in my opinion, the best prose in modern India is in Bengali (particularly the works of the great Bengali writer Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyaya).  There has been also great literature in Tamil (the ‘Tiruppavai’ of Andal is reminiscent of the poetry of Surdas and Mirabai), Marathi, Gujarati, Oriya, Assamese, Punjabi, Telugu, Malayalam, Kashmiri (see the verses of Habba Khatoon), etc.  All languages in our country deserve equal respect.
However, having said that, we must understand that Sanskrit and Urdu stand on a different footing from these other languages.  Sanskrit and Urdu are our two great national cultural languages (while other languages are regional).

There is a great misunderstanding about both Sanskrit and Urdu. Sanskrit is often regarded as a language of rituals and Pooja Paath among Hindus, although I have shown in my speech entitled ‘Sanskrit as a Language of Science’ delivered in the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore as well as in Banaras Hindu University (which you can see on Google under that caption) that 95% of Sanskrit literature has nothing to do with religion or religious rituals, and instead deals with philosophy, science, mathematics, medicine, literature, grammar, interpretation, etc. 
Similarly, there have been a lot of misconceptions about Urdu e.g. that it is a foreign language or it is a language of Muslims alone.

As I have already mentioned, our country’s culture is the Sanskrit-Urdu Culture.  We have, therefore, to understand Urdu in order to understand our country.

TWO FALSE NOTIONS ABOUT URDU

Urdu is a foreign language, and Urdu is a language of Muslims alone.

 Two false notions were propagated, particularly after 1947 about Urdu by certain vested interests (1) that Urdu is a foreign language, and (2) that Urdu is a language of Muslims alone.

The first idea is palpably false.  Arabic and Persian are no doubt foreign languages (though I have great respect for them also, as I have great respect for all languages).  But Urdu is a language which is totally indigenous.  It was born here in India as the language of the Lashkar (camp) and of the market.  In its simplified form (as Khariboli or Hindustani) it is the language of the common man in large parts of urban India.  Its prominent figures all lived in India, and they have made an outstanding contribution to our culture, dealing with the problems of the people, sympathizing in their sorrows, and touching the human heart.  Only ignorant people can call Urdu a foreign language.

The second notion, that Urdu is a language of Muslims alone, is also false.  In fact upto the last generation in our country Urdu was the language of all educated people, whether Hindu, Muslim, Sikh or Christian, in large parts of urban India.  In my own family upto my father everyone was highly proficient in Urdu.  It is only from my generation that Urdu has disappeared, which I regard as unfortunate. The notion that Urdu is a language of Muslims alone can only be attributed to the policy of `divide and rule’.  Certain vested interests wanted Hindus and Muslims to fight with each other, and hence they give birth to the false notion that Hindi is the language of Hindus while Urdu is the language of Muslims.  As a matter of fact the spoken language of the common man (in urban areas) is Khariboli (or Hindustani), Urdu being Persianized Khariboli, and Hindi being Sanskritized Khariboli.

Urdu has a national following in our country as it is spoken in 13 States of the country, and is in the 8th Schedule to the Constitution.

WHAT IS URDU ?

All of you gathered here today would be lovers of Urdu poetry.  In my opinion the best poetry in modern India is in Urdu (the best prose, in my opinion, being in Bengali).  But what is Urdu? I am sure that even many Professors in Urdu Department or Urdu Poets will not be able to give the correct answer to this question.  Therefore, I will attempt to do so. Urdu is the language which was created by the superimposition of some features and vocabulary of the Persian language on a Hindustani (Khariboli) foundation.  Thus, Urdu is a language created by the combination of two languages, Persian and Hindustani.  It is for this reason that at one time it was called `Rekhta’ which means hybrid (Ghalib calls Urdu rekhta).

“Rekhta ke tumhi to ustaad nahin ghalib = Kahte hain agle zamaana me koi Mir bhi tha”

Since Urdu was created by the combination of Persian and Hindustani,   the question   arises   whether  Urdu  is a special kind of Persian or a special kind of Hindustani?  The answer is that it is a special kind of Hindustani, not a special kind of Persian.  This needs to be explained.  What determines the language to which a sentence belongs is the verb used in it (and not the noun, adjective, etc.).  For example, if I say : “Mr. Ram, you and your wife aaiye tomorrow night for dinner at my home at 8 p.m.” this sentence is a Hindi sentence and not a English sentence, although 15 out of the 16 words used in it are in English.  Why?  Because the verb (aaiye) used in it is a Hindi word, not an English word. In Urdu all verbs are in simple, colloquial Hindi (which is called Hindustani  or  Khariboli).  Many  of  the nouns and adjectives in Urdu are from Persian (or Arabic**), as are many of the forms of poetry e.g.

Arabic words came into the Persian language after the conquest of Persia by the Arabs.  The great Persian poet Firdausi (author of Shahnama) sought to remove Arabic words from Persian but he failed.  In fact by accepting foreign words a language becomes stronger, not weaker.  For example, English has become stronger by accepting many foreign words. ghazal, masnavi, qaseeda, masriya, etc. but the verb will always be from Hindustani.  If the verb is from Persian it would become a Persian sentence, not an Urdu sentence, and if the verb is Arabic it would become an Arabic sentence.

We may take any Urdu sher (couplet) of any Urdu poet and we will find that the verb is always in simple Hindi (though many nouns and adjectives may be Persian or Arabic). Thus Urdu is a special kind of Hindustani (or Khariboli), not a special kind of Persian.  I am emphasizing this because had Urdu been a special kind of Persian it would have been a foreign language.  The fact that it is a special kind of Khariboli (or Hindustani) shows that it is a desi or indigenous language.  This answers the criticism of those who call Urdu a foreign Language. Arabic and Persian are foreign languages, but Urdu is an indigenous language. We must, now, first understand something about Khariboli (or Hindustani) which is the foundation on which Urdu was built.

WHAT IS KHARIBOLI ?

Khariboli is simple or spoken Hindi, as contrasted to literary Hindi which is used by many writers and public speakers. Khariboli is an urban language.  It is the first language of the common man in the cities of what is known as the Hindi speaking belt (Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, etc.) and is the second language in the cities of many parts of the non-Hindi speaking belt, not only in India but also in Pakistan. For instance, in Khariboli (or Hindustani) we say “udhar dekhiye”, while in Hindi we say “udhar avlokan keejiye”.

How did Khariboli come into existence?

I may relate a personal experience.  I was traveling in a taxi from Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh to Gulbarga in Karnataka where I had to attend a function.  The taxi driver was a Telugu speaking person while the Professor of Gulbarga University who came to fetch me was a Kannada speaking gentleman, but they spoke to each other in Hindi.  I was surprised, since both these persons were South Indians, and I asked them why they were speaking in Hindi.  They said that that was because Hindi was the link language for them both.

Almost all cities in the world originated as market places (mandis).  This was only possible when the productive forces had developed to an extent that people were producing more than they could themselves consume, and hence the surplus had to be sold or exchanged.  In other words, commodities (i.e. goods for sale or exchange,  and  not  for  self  consumption)  began  to be produced. 

Since the seller and the purchaser had to have a known place where the transaction of sale and purchase could take place, market places (mandis) were created, which later became cities.
Now the seller and purchaser must have a common language, otherwise the transaction of sale would not be possible.  Hence Khariboli arose as that common language of the market.
To give an illustration, in Allahabad (where I have mostly lived) Khariboli is spoken in the city, but in the rural areas around Allahabad city the dialect spoken is Avadhi (in which Tulsidas wrote his Ramcharitmanas).  In Mathura city Khariboli is spoken, but in the rural areas around Mathura Brijbhasha (the language of Surdas) is spoken.  In Benaras city or the other eastern cities of U.P. Khariboli is spoken, but in the rural areas around these cities Bhojpuri is spoken.  In parts of northern Bihar Maithili is the rural dialect (in which the great poet Vidyapati wrote) but in the cities there also Khariboli is spoken.  In Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh Khariboli is spoken in the cities, but in the rural areas local dialects (e.g. Mewari amd Marwari in Rajasthan) are spoken which an outsider cannot understand.
This shows that in vast areas of north India the rural population speaks different dialects, but the urban population had a common language, Khariboli.  How did this happen?
This happened because a vast common market had been created in India (due to the development of the productive forces) even before the coming of the Mughals.  A trader traveling from Bihar or Madhya Pradesh could easily sell his goods in a city in Uttar Pradesh or Rajasthan or Punjab because there was a common language, Khariboli, which both seller and purchaser knew (apart from knowing their local dialects).  Thus Khariboli is the common language of the cities in large parts of India.  Even in many parts of the non-Hindi speaking belt Khariboli is understood and spoken as a second language.  Thus, if one goes to Kolkata or Bangalore or Gujarat or Lahore or Karachi or even in many parts of south India he can converse in Khariboli with people living in the cities (though there might be difficulty in rural areas).
Having understood the nature of Khariboli, we can now proceed to understand Urdu.
As I have already mentioned, Urdu is the language created by Persian superimposition on a Khariboli foundation.  This, too needs to be explained.

ABOUT PERSIAN

For centuries Persian was the court language of India.  This was because Persian had been highly developed in Persia by writers like Firdausi, Hafiz, Sadi, Roomi, Umar Khayyam, etc. as a language of culture, grace and sophistication, and it spread to large parts of the oriental world.  Persian poets developed highly sophisticated forms of poetry e.g. ghazal, qaseeda, masriya, rubaiyat, etc.  Urdu poetry is in a sense continuation of Persian poetry but in  a totally different setting and a different language.
           
Of all these forms, the ghazal is the most popular.  It is in fact a marvel of condensation, and most Urdu writers have used it in most of their poetry.  It is characterized by qaafiya, radeef, matla and maqta (see their meanings on Google). 
To explain, let us take the following verses of the great Urdu poet Firaq :

“Har zarre par ek kaifiyat-e-neemshabi hai
ai sake-e-dauran yeh gunahon ki gharee hai
maaloom hai sairabiye sar chashma-e-haivan
bas tashnalabi tashnalabi tashnalabi hai”

Here ‘hai’ is the radeef, and neemshabi, gharee etc. are qaafiya.  Thus qaafiya precedes radeef.  Radeef is the last word (or words) at the end of a sentence, and is repeated, qaafiya is not a repetition but a rhyming word.
The Mughals were Turks, not Persians, but though their mother tongue  was Turkish, they accepted Persian as the court language as it was more developed than Turkish. Akbar’s finance minister Raja Todarmal got all the revenue records throughout the Mughal Empire written in Persian. Thus, though Babar wrote his autobiography, Tuzuk-e- Babri, in Turkish, his grandson Akbar got it translated into Persian and called it Babarnama.  His own biography, Akbarnama, written by Abul Fazl is in Persian, and so is the autobiography of his son Jehangir (called Jahangirnama) and the biography of Shahjehan (called Shahjehanama). This phenomenon of a foreign language being accepted as the language of the upper class or the court is nothing unique.  For instance, French was the language of the Russian and German (and indeed much of European) aristocracy upto the 19TH Century.  Thus in Tolstoy’s `War and Peace’, we find that the Russian commanders (who were all aristocrats) often spoke to each other in French, although their enemy, Napoleon’s army, was French.  Similarly English is the language of the elite in India even today. Persian was the court language of India for several centuries, and hence it exerted its influence on the common language of the cities, which as already mentioned above, was Khariboli. How, then was Urdu created?  This is a fascinating question, and I will try to answer it.
 
CREATION OF URDU
While the Mughal Emperors from Akbar to Aurangzeb were strong rulers, having control over large parts of
India, their successors, the later Mughals, who ruled from 1707 (when Aurangzeb died) to 1857 (when the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah  Zafar,  was  deposed), were mere phantoms or shadows of the departed glory of their ancestors.  Thus it is said :
“Saltanat-e-Shah Alam
Az Dilli ta Palam”
i.e. “the Empire of Shah Alam extends from Delhi to Palam”.
These later Mughals were Emperors only in name, they were in fact pauperized, they had lost their Empire to the Britishers, the Marathas, and their Governors, who had really became independent rulers (like the Nawabs of Awadh or Nizam of Hyderabad). In their reign the court language gradually ceased to be Persian and instead became Urdu. 
Why did the court language which was Persian in the reign of the great Mughals become Urdu in the reign of the later Mughals?  This was because the later Mughals were not real Emperors but had become nearer to commoners or paupers with all the difficulties of the common man.  Hence they had to take recourse to a language nearer the common man.  Why then did their court language not become Khariboli, which was the language of the common man in the cities?  That was because these later Mughals, and their Lieutenants, the Nawabs and Wazirs, while having become pauperized retained their dignity, culture and self respect.  They still prided themselves in being Shahzade-Timuria i.e. descendants of Timur, the great conqueror, (who was Babar’s grand father’s great-grandfather) and descendants of the great Mughals.  Thus despite having become paupers they were not prepared to be treated as commoners.  Hence while they gave up Persian and adopted Khariboli, this was not the Khariboli of the common man but Khariboli of a special type, borrowing from the sophistication, polish and culture of the Persian language.  In other words they spoke a Khariboli which was coupled with the graceful features, sophistication and some vocabulary of Persian. Urdu is thus the language of aristocrats who had become pauperized, but who retained their dignity, pride and respect.
The well known story of Urdu’s greatest poet Ghalib is that despite being in great financial distress he refused a job simply because when he went to offer his services no one was there to receive him.
The dignity of Urdu speaking people is best exemplified in the following lines of Josh :

“Hashr mein bhi khusrawana shaan se jaayenge hum
Aur agar purshish na hogi, to palat aayenge hum ”
(Even on judgment day I will go in style
And if not given respect, will turn back)

DUAL NATURE OF URDU

Thus Urdu is both an aristocratic language as well as the commoner’s language.  It is the commoner’s language because in fact the later Mughals had become almost (though not quite) commoners, having lost their Empire.  It is at the same time not the common man’s language, since the common man’s language is Hindustani, not Urdu.  The later Mughals, despite being pauperized refused to be treated like paupers and insisted on being treated with respect as aristocrats.  Urdu has the graces, polish and sophistication of an aristocratic language.  Thus Urdu has a dual nature; it is both the common man’s language (aawaam ki zubaan) and also the aristocrat’s language (the common man’s language being Hindustani or Khariboli).  This may sound a paradox, but it is true, and in fact this is the beauty of Urdu, that while it is the language of the common man, expressing all the problems, worries, sorrows and hopes of the common man, it is also a language of grace, polish, sophistication and dignity.
It has been mentioned above that Urdu is basically a combination of two languages, Hindustani (or simple Hindi) and Persian, the former being the common man’s language, while the latter being the aristocrat’s language.  It has also been mentioned that Urdu is a special kind of Hindustani, not a special kind of Persian (because the verbs in it are all in Hindustani).  Continuing this analysis it may be stated that the content of Urdu i.e. the feelings and ideas expressed therein are that of the common man, but its form of expression is aristocratic.  In other words, Urdu expresses the troubles, sorrows, anxieties and hopes and aspirations of the common man, but its style (andaz-e-bayan) is not that of a common man but that of an aristocrat.
For instance, the greatest Urdu poet Ghalib had a horror of the commonplace in the mode of expression in poetry.  Regarding himself an aristocrat, he had an intense desire to be different from the common masses, and his poetry is marked by its originality and unconventionality.  Ghalib was of the firm view that the language of poetry should not be the same as the spoken language.  Hence he often expresses his thoughts not directly but indirectly, by hints and suggestions.
The same is true of many other Urdu poets.  They often express their thoughts and feelings not in simple, direct language but by insinuations, allusions, indications, and in a roundabout way, the aim being to appear sophisticated and elitist, instead of being common place.  This sometimes makes the work difficult to understand (the great Urdu critic and biographer Hali regarded one-third of Ghalib’s verses too recondite to be regarded as being in Urdu), and sometimes several meanings can be attributed to the same verse.
However, the aristocratic style and sophistication (andaaz-e-bayan) of Urdu is what makes it powerful, and enables the emotion and thoughts of the common man to be expressed forcefully and robustly.  Hindi does not have that power as it lacks that degree of sophistication.

REPLACEMENT OF PERSIAN BY URDU

As long as there were strong Mughal Emperors in India (i.e. upto 1707 when Aurangzeb died), Persian was the court language, and such was its domination that Urdu was never given respectability, and could never become the court language in North India, but instead found its haven or sanctuary in South India and Gujarat (where it was the language of the elite).  In a sense Urdu originated in South India and became popular there during the reign of the great Mughals, receiving patronage in the Southern kingdoms of Golkunda, Bijapur, Ahmednagar, etc. where it became the court language.  Thus it is interesting to note that Urdu became the court language in South India and Gujarat during the reign of the Great Mughals but it could never displace Persian in the North as long there were strong Mughals.
          
Urdu got respect in South India because there it was a foreign language (the local languages being Telugu, Tamil, Gujarati, etc.).  And as I have already mentioned, the elite in a society often prefers to speak a foreign language (to distinguish itself from the common people).
In fact at that time Urdu was frowned upon in the North and looked down upon as an inferior language, the ideal language being regarded Persian, while in South India and Gujarat it became widespread (among the elite) and got patronage.  In this connection it is interesting to note that when the great South Indian Urdu poet Vali Dakhkhini( Some people regard him as the father or founder of Urdu.  There is a dispute about his place of origin, some regarding him as Gujarati) came to Delhi in 1700 A.D. in the reign of Aurangzeb, he found that his fame had preceded him and he was very popular in Delhi because his poetry could be understood as it was written in Urdu which the common man of Delhi could understand, while the Delhi poets were all writing in Persian, which the common man could not understand.  Vali, though a South Indian is often regarded as the father of Urdu because he revealed to the Delhi poets the possibility of writing poetry in Urdu, a language which the common man could understand, and he made Urdu respectable in North India. It was only when the era of the later Mughals began (after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707) that Persian was gradually displaced by  Urdu  as  the  Court language (for the reason already mentioned above), though this was done very grudgingly,( The Farmans of the Mughal Emperors, including those of the later Mughals, were always in Persian, never in Urdu.  Thus, when I went to Chamba in Himachal Pradesh and visited the museum there, which was the former palace of the Hindu Kings, I found the Farmans of the Mughal Emperors recognizing the Chamba kings all in Persian, not Urdu) and an example of this is Ghalib who preferred his Persian poetry and looked down upon his Urdu poetry (though his greatness is entirely due to the latter).  Thus, in a letter to his friend Munshi Shiv Narain Aram Ghalib writes “My friend, how can I write in Urdu?  Is my standing so low that this should be expected of me?”  Thus, writing in Urdu was regarded infra dig, and all respectable writers at that time wrote in Persian.       
I may give another example.  My ancestor who came from Kashmir around 1775, Pandit Mansa Ram Katju, has made an entry in the register of the Panda of Kurukshetra which reads :
“batalaash-e-maash-aamadam
which  means  “I  have  come  in  quest  of  bread”  i.e. looking  for employment (which he got in the court of the Nawab of Jaora in Western Madhya Pradesh). The interesting thing is that he has written in Persian, not Urdu. It was Persian which was used by the educated class in those days for writing.  Urdu may have been the spoken language, but the written language was Persian. Ghalib who prided himself in his Turkish ancestry, was very reluctant to write in Urdu, and preferred Persian.  Even his early Urdu poetry is highly Persianized and hence difficult to understand, and his best verses are his later ones when he began using more Khariboli. The collapse of the Mughal Empire on the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 was a blessing in disguise for Urdu, for only then could it displace Persian as the Court language.  The heydays of Urdu was in the days of the later Mughals, and the high noon was in the time of the last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar. Right upto 1947 Urdu was the language of the courts, and of the educated people in large parts of India.  At the same time, due to its dual nature, it was also (as Khariboli) the common man’s language in urban areas. Being the common man’s language in large parts of urban India Urdu borrowed from every language, and never objected to words of other languages.
 
URDU IS LOVED BY THE COMMON MAN IN INDIA
Since Urdu was the common man’s language it was loved by the common man, and is loved even today.
This can be demonstrated by three facts :

(1) Even today Hindi film songs are in Urdu, for the voice of the heart will be in one’s own language, however, much some people may try to suppress it.  I remember when I was young my generation used to sing –
                        “ae dil mujhe aisi jagah le chal jahan koi na ho”
                                                            or
                        “dil dhoondata hai phir wahi fursat ke raat din”

and we never realized at that time that these film songs are verses from the great poet Ghalib.
We also sang ‘Jinhe naaz hai hind par wo kahaan hain’ which is the simplified form of Sahir Ludhianvi’s verse ‘Sanaa khwaan-e-taqdees-e-mashrik kahaan hain’ (song in the Hindi film ‘Pyaasa’).  Today the young generation sings ‘Munni badnaam hui’ and ‘Sheela ki jawaani’, which I regard as nonsense.
(2) In railway bookstalls the books which get sold are works of  Ghalib, Mir, Faiz, Josh, Firaq, Hali, Dag, Majaz, Zauq, etc. (nowadays in Devnagri script) and not the works of Hindi poets.
We are told that Hindi, not Urdu, is the language of the people.  Then why are works of Hindi poets like Mahadevi Verma or Sumitra Nandan Pant not sold in railway bookstalls, where the common people buy books, and instead Hindi speaking people buy Urdu poetry books?
(3) Hindi writers who have an Urdu background e.g. Premchand, Kishan Chand, Rajender Singh Bedi, Prof. Gopi Chand and Malik Ram are most accepted even in the Hindi world.
Urdu is loved by the people of India because it has grown among the people.  Urdu literature is a literature of protest, protest against the afflictions of the common man and against injustice.  We may consider this poem of Faiz (who, with Ghalib, is my favourite Urdu poet):
“Nisaar main teri galiyon pe ae watan ki jahaan
chali hai rasm ki koi na sar utha ke chale
jo koi chahnewala tawaaf ko nikle
nazar chura ke chale jism-o-jaan bachaa ke chale”
The above is an example of protest against despotism and tyranny during martial law in Pakistan.
Urdu is also the language of patriotism.  Everyone knows the famous lines of Ram Prasad Bismil :
Sarfaroshi ki tamanna ab hamaare dil mein hai”
Urdu poetry has protested against ritualism, formalism, and oppressive or antiquated social customs (in this sense it can be said to be a successor to Kabir’s poetry, though of course it is much more sophisticated).  Thus Ghalib writes :
“Nahin kuch subha-o-junnaar ke phande mein geerayi
 wafadaari mein sheikh-o-barhaman ki aazmaaish hai”
i.e. “The amulet (of a Muslim) or the sacred thread (of the Hindu) is not very material.  The test of a Sheikh or Brahman is his loyalty (to his ideals or principles)”.
We may here also refer to the short stories of Saadat Hasan Manto, particularly about the horrors of partition e.g. `Thanda Gosht’, ‘Tithwaal ka kutta’, ‘Khol do’, etc.
Being the language of the common man in modern India Urdu is almost entirely secular.  Some of the greatest Urdu poets are almost anti-religious. Thus the great poet Mir writes :
“Mir ke deen-o-mazhab ko tum poonchte kya ho unne to
kashka kheencha dair mein baitha kab ka tark islaam kiya”
Similarly Ghalib writes :
“Imaan mujhe roke hai to kheenche hai mujhe kufr
kaaba mere peeche hai, kaleesa mere aage”
i.e. “Faith is stopping me, while atheism is pulling me forward.  Kaaba is behind me, the Church is in front.”
Here the word `Kaleesa’ only ostensibly means `Church’, but its real meaning is modern civilization.  Thus Ghalib, like many Urdu writers, is opposed to feudal civilization and commends modernism.
Urdu literature has Sufi influence.  The Sufis were the liberals among the Muslims, and not the bigoted.  They spread the message of universal love among all humans, whatever their religion, caste, etc.  Also since Sufis communicated with the laity in the common man’s language, they contributed to the growth of Urdu. Among the modern Urdu poets Sahir Ludhianvi is outspokenly atheistic.  Consider the following lines :
“Aqaayad vaham hai mazhab khyaal khaam hai saaqi
Azal se zahen-e-insaan bastaa vaham hai saaqi
which means :
“Creeds are a delusion and religions merely false notions; From the beginning man’s mind has been a slave to superstitions” and again:
“bezaar hai kanisht-o-kaleesa se ek jahaan
Saudagaraan-e-din ki saudagari ki khair
which means :
“The world is sick of temples and churches;
pray for the safety of the traffickers in religion”
I venture to submit that no poetry in the world has expressed the voice and sorrows of the human heart in a manner Urdu has done.  Consider the sheer pathos in these simple words of Ghalib :
“Ranj se khoogar hua insaan to mit jaata hai ranj
mushkilen itni pari mujhpar ki aasaan ho gayeen”
i.e. “When a person is habituated of sorrows Then sorrows disappear So many difficulties fell upon me
That everything became easy”.
Some of the Urdu writers like Mir and Nazir have written beautiful poems on Holi, Diwali, Raakhi and other Hindu festivals and customs, which shows that Urdu was not the language of any particular religion.  A large number of Hindus have made their names in the front ranks of Urdu literature e.g. Firaq, Chakbast, Ratan Lal Sarshar, Ram Prasad Bismil, etc.  In Vali’s poetry the words Ganga, Jamuna, Krishna, Ram, Saraswati, Sita, Lakshmi, etc. appear frequently.

PARTITION OF INDIA AND URDU

The greatest damage to Urdu was done by the Partition of India in 1947.  Since then Urdu was branded in India as a foreign language, as a language of Muslims alone, so much so that even Muslims stopped studying Urdu to show their `patriotism’ and solidarity with their Hindu brethren.  After 1947 Persian words which were in common usage were systematically sought to be replaced by Sanskrit words which were not in common use.  For example ‘zila’ was changed to ‘janapad’.  In a case which I was hearing in the Allahabad High Court an application entitled “Pratibhu Avedan Patra” was moved before me.  I asked the learned counsel what is the meaning of this word “Pratibhu”.  He said it meant a bail application.  I told him he should have used the words `bail’ or `zamanat’ which all understand instead of the word ` Pratibhu’ which no one understands, not even Khariboli speakers.  On another occasion when I was on a morning walk I saw a board on which were written the words “Pravaran Kendra”.  I could not understand the meaning, and I looked further up where in English it was written `Selection Centre’.  In my opinion the words used in Hindi should have been `Bharti Daftar’ or `Rozgar Daftar’ instead of  “Pravaran Kendra” which nobody understands.
This policy of hatefully removing Persian words which were in common use in Khariboli and replacing them by Sanskrit words which are not in common use resulted in creating an unnecessarily Sanskritized Hindi which the common man often finds it difficult to understand.  In our Courts of law it is often difficult to understand the Hindi used in Government Notifications.  Also this policy of hatred for Persian words resulted in almost genocide for Urdu.
The famous Urdu critic, Shamshur Rahmaan Farooqui, in an interview to Dr. Athar Farooqui, said “It is a sad thing for me, just as it is for others like me, that Urdu literature has ceased to be a living reality for our generation.  It has become dead and buried in books.”
With respect, I cannot agree.
Despite all hostile efforts the language which speaks the voice of the heart can never be stamped out as long as people have hearts.  The evidence that Urdu lives in the hearts of Indians even today can be seen from the surprisingly large crowds which `mushairas’ attract, from all sections of society and in all parts of the country, north, west, south and east.  If Urdu is a foreign language it is very surprising that the people of India love it so much, they buy Urdu poetry books, sing Urdu songs, etc.
I suggest that the Devanagri script be also used in publication of works of Urdu poets, (as was done by Prakash Pandit and others) since that will enable those who do not know the Persian script to read it.  In my opinion one should not be too rigid about the script. Some ‘Progressive’ writers wanted that all Urdu should be written in Devanagri script, but I do not agree with this view.  A flexible approach should be adopted leaving it to the individual to choose whatever script he wants.
What can be done is that in the left hand page the text can be published in the Persian script, while on the right hand page it can be published in the Devanagri script, with meanings of difficult words explained below in simple Hindi (Hindustani). 
       
The great Urdu writer Josh once said that Urdu suffered badly after 1947 because it was cut away from bread and butter.  This is true.  One main reason why people stopped learning and reading Urdu was because it would not help them in their livelihood (as it did before 1947).
In this connection I have a suggestion to make.  While a Judge of Allahabad High Court I had given a judgment, Ramesh Upadhyaya  vs.  State of U.P., Writ Petition No.29290 of 1990 decided on 18.1.1993 in which I recommended that Sanskrit and Urdu, our two great cultural languages, be made compulsory in all schools for five years (from class 3 to class 8).  As yet this recommendation has not been accepted, but if it is accepted it will mean that thousands of people knowing Urdu will get jobs in schools in many parts of India.  In this way Urdu will get connected to bread and butter, and also, our children will get a foundation of this great cultural language, which they can later build upon if they wish.  They will thereby also learn the Persian script.
All lovers of Urdu can request the Central and State Governments to implement my recommendations.  I am attaching that judgment to this paper.
I would like to appeal to Urdu (and Hindi) writers to use simple language.  Often on reading some Hindi or Urdu work one finds it difficult to understand it.  But if what is written is not even understandable what use is there of such literature ?  Today the Indian people are facing terrible problems like poverty, unemployment, price rise etc.  Literature must contribute to the people’s struggles in the face of these problems, and that it can do by using simple language which the people can understand, like the war time speeches of Winston Churchill, or the stories of Premchand and Sharat Chandra.
It must be remembered that Mir and Ghalib wrote for select gatherings comprising of aristocrats and the educated elite.  In the modern age Urdu writers must write for the masses, and for that they must use simpler language. I also appeal to my brother Judges in all Court in India to quote Urdu poets on appropriate occasions in some of their judgments, as this will give encouragement to Urdu. In this connection I may mention that Mr. Justice Mahmood, the celebrated Judge of the Allahabad High Court of the 19th Century often quoted from Urdu poetry e.g.
“Jo chup rahegi zubaan-e-khanjar
Lahoo pukarega aasteen ka”
He used the above couplet in a judgment while deciding a murder appeal. Why cannot our other brother and sister Judges do the same?  I sometimes hear shairi in Parliamentary speeches, but never in Court judgments. In the end I would like to quote a sher (couplet) from one of my favourite Urdu poets, Faiz :
“Gulon mein rang bhare bade-naubahar chale
Chale bhi aao ki gulshan mein kaarobar chale”
What does this sher mean?  Ostensibly it means :
“Among the flowers the coloured breeze of a new spring is blowing,
Come forward, so that the garden may function.”
In Urdu poetry, however, many shers have an inner meaning, apart from the ostensible one.
In my opinion the above sher really means that the objective conditions in our country are inviting the patriotic people in India to come forward now, so that the country, which is facing huge problems, may move forward. Urdu is written in the Persian (not Arabic) script.  There are some differences between the Persian and Arabic scripts.